4.3. Reports

Novell AppArmor's reporting feature adds flexibility by enhancing the way users can view security event data. The reporting tool performs the following:

Using reports, you can read important Novell AppArmor security events reported in the log files without manually sifting through the cumbersome messages only useful to the logprof tool. You can narrow down the size of the report by filtering by date range or program name. You can also export an html or csv file.

The following are the three types of reports available in Novell AppArmor:

Executive Security Summary

A combined report, consisting of one or more security incident reports from one or more machines. This report can provide a single view of security events on multiple machines. For more details, refer to Section 4.3.1.3, “Executive Security Summary” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

Application Audit Report

An auditing tool that reports which application servers are running and whether the applications are confined by AppArmor. Application servers are applications that accept incoming network connections. For more details, refer to Section 4.3.1.1, “Application Audit Report” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

Security Incident Report

A report that displays application security for a single host. It reports policy violations for locally confined applications during a specific time period. You can edit and customize this report or add new versions. For more details, refer to Section 4.3.1.2, “Security Incident Report” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

To use the Novell AppArmor reporting features, proceed with the following steps:

  1. To run reports, open YaST+Novell AppArmor. The Novell AppArmor interface opens.

    AppArmor interface
  2. In Novell AppArmor, click AppArmor Reports. The AppArmor Security Event Reports window appears. From the Reports window, select an option and proceed to the section for instructions:

    Reports window
    View Archive

    Displays all reports that have been run and stored in /var/log/apparmor/reports-archived/. Select the report you want to see in detail and click View. For View Archive instructions, proceed to Section 4.3.1, “Viewing Archived Reports” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

    Run Now

    Produces an instant version of the selected report type. If you select a security incident report, it can be further filtered in various ways. For Run Now instructions, proceed to Section 4.3.2, “Run Now: Running On-Demand Reports” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

    Add

    Creates a scheduled security incident report. For Add instructions, proceed to Section 4.3.3, “Adding New Reports” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

    Edit

    Edits a scheduled security incident report.

    Delete

    Deletes a scheduled security incident report. All stock or canned reports cannot be deleted.

    Back

    Returns you to the Novell AppArmor main screen.

    Abort

    Returns you to the Novell AppArmor main screen.

    Next

    Performs the same function as the Run Now button.

4.3.1. Viewing Archived Reports

View Reports enables you to specify the location of a cumulation of reports from one or more systems, including the ability to filter by date or names of programs accessed and display them all together in one report.

  1. From the AppArmor Security Event Report window, select View Archive.

    Security Event Report
  2. Select the report type to view. Toggle between the different types (SIR (Security Incident Report), App Aud (Application Audit), and ESS (Executive Security Summary).

  3. You can alter the directory location of the archived reports in Location of Archived Reports. Select Accept to use the current directory or select Browse to find a new report location. The default directory is /var/log/apparmor/reports-archived/.

  4. To view all the reports in the archive, select View All. To view a specific report, select a report file listed in the Report field, then select View.

  5. For Application Audit and Executive Security Summary reports, proceed to Step 9 (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

  6. The Report Configuration Dialog opens for Security Incident reports.

    Report Configuration
  7. The Report Configuration dialog enables you to filter the reports selected in the previous screen. Enter the desired filter details. The fields are:

    Date Range

    To display reports for a certain time period, select Filter By Date Range. Enter the start and end dates that define the scope of the report.

    Program Name

    When you enter a program name or pattern that matches the name of the binary executable of the program of interest, the report displays security events that have occurred for a specific program.

    Profile Name

    When you enter the name of the profile, the report displays the security events that are generated for the specified profile. You can use this to see what is being confined by a specific profile.

    PID Number

    PID Number is a number that uniquely identifies one specific process or running program (this number is valid only during the lifetime of that process).

    Severity Level

    Select the lowest severity level for security events to include in the report. The selected severity level and above are then included in the reports.

    Detail

    A source to which the profile has denied access. This includes capabilities and files. You can use this field to report the resources to which profiles prevent access.

    Access Type

    The access type describes what is actually happening with the security event. The options are: PERMITTING, REJECTING, or AUDITING.

    Mode

    The Mode is the permission that the profile grants to the program or process to which it is applied. The options are: r (read) w (write) l (link) x (execute).

    Export Type

    Enables you to export a CSV (comma separated values) or HTML file. The CSV file separates pieces of data in the log entries with commas using a standard data format for importing into table-oriented applications. You can enter a pathname for your exported report by typing the full pathname in the field provided.

    Location to Store Log

    Enables you to change the location that the exported report is store. The default location is /var/log/apparmor/reports-exported. When you change this location, select Accept. Select Browse to browse the file system.

  8. To see the report, filtered as desired, select Next. One of the three reports displays.

  9. Refer the following sections for detailed information about each type of report.

4.3.1.1. Application Audit Report

An auditing tool that reports which application servers are running and whether they are confined by AppArmor. Application servers are applications that accept incoming network connections. This report provides the host machine’s IP address, the date the application audit report ran, the name and path of the unconfined program or application server, the suggested profile or a placeholder for a profile for an unconfined program, the process ID number, the state of the program (confined or unconfined), and the type of confinement that the profile is performing (enforce or complain).

The following screen represents an application audit report:

Application audit report

The following are definitions for the fields in the application audit report:

Host

The machine protected by AppArmor for which the security events are being reported.

Date

The date during which security events occurred.

Program

The name of the executing process.

Profile

The absolute name of the security profile that is applied to the process.

PID

Process ID number is a number that uniquely identifies one specific process or running program (this number is valid only during the lifetime of that process).

State

This field reveals whether the program listed in the program field is confined. If it is not confined, you might consider creating a profile for it.

Type

This field reveals the type of confinement the security event represents. It says either complain or enforce. If the application is not confined (state), no type of confinement is reported.

4.3.1.2. Security Incident Report

A report that displays security events of interest to an administrator. The SIR reports policy violations for locally confined applications during the specified time period. The SIR reports policy exceptions and policy engine state changes. These two types of security events are defined as follows:

Policy Exceptions

When an application requests a resource that is not defined within its profile, a security event is triggered. A report is generated that displays security events of interest to an administrator. The SIR reports policy violations for locally confined applications during the specified time period. The SIR reports policy exceptions and policy engine state changes.

Policy Engine State Changes

Enforces policy for applications and maintains its own state, including when engines start or stop, when a policy is reloaded, and when global security feature are enabled or disabled.

The following screen represents an SIR report:

Security incident report

The following are definitions for the fields in the SIR report:

Host

The machine protected by AppArmor for which the security events are being reported.

Date

The date during which security events occurred.

Program

The name of the executing process.

Profile

The absolute name of the security profile that is applied to the process.

PID

Process ID number is a number that uniquely identifies one specific process or running program (this number is valid only during the lifetime of that process).

Severity

Severity levels of events are reported from the severity database. The severity database defines the importance of potential security events and numbers them one through ten, ten being the most severe security incident. The severity levels are determined by the threat or importance of different security events, such as certain resources accessed or services denied.

Mode

The mode is the permission that the profile grants to the program or process to which it is applied. The options are r (read), w (write), l (link), and x (execute).

Detail

A source to which the profile has denied access.This includes capabilities and files. You can use this field to report the resources to which the profile prevents access.

Access Type

The access type describes what is actually happening with the security event. The options are PERMITTING, REJECTING, or AUDITING.

4.3.1.3. Executive Security Summary

A combined report consisting of one or more high-level reports from one or more machines. This report can provide a single view of security events on multiple machines if each machine's data is copied to the reports archive directory, which is /var/log/apparmor/reports-archived. This report provides the host machine's IP address, the start and end dates of the polled events, total number of rejects, total number of events, average of severity levels reported, and the highest severity level reported. One line of the ESS report represents a range of SIR reports.

The following screen represents an executive security summary:

Executive security
	 summary

The following are definitions for the fields in the executive security summary:

Host

The machine protected by AppArmor for which the security events are being reported.

Start Date

The first date in a range of dates during which security events are reported.

End Date

The last date in a range of dates during which security events are reported.

Num of Rejects

In the date range given, the total number of security events that are rejected access attempts.

Num of Events

In the date range given, the total number of security events.

Avg Severity

This is the average of the severity levels reported in the date range given. Unknown severities are disregarded in this figure.

High Severity

This is the severity of the highest severity event reported in the date range given.

4.3.2. Run Now: Running On-Demand Reports

The Run Now report feature enables you to instantly extract report information from the Novell AppArmor event logs without waiting for scheduled events. Return to the beginning of this section if you need help navigating to the main report screen (see Section 4.3, “Reports” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide)). Perform the following steps to run a report from the list of reports:

  1. Select the report to run instantly from the list of reports in the Schedule Reports window.

  2. Select Run Now or Next. The next screen depends on which report you selected in the previous step. For Application Audit and Executive Security Summary reports, proceed to Step 6 (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide).

  3. The Report Configuration Dialog displays for security incident reports.

    Report Configuration
  4. The Report Configuration Dialog enables you to filter the reports selected in the previous screen. Enter the desired filter details. The following filter options are available:

    Date Range

    To limit reports to a certain time period, select Filter By Date Range. Enter the start and end dates that determine the scope of the report.

    Program Name

    When you enter a program name or pattern that matches the name of the binary executable for the program of interest, the report displays security events that have occurred for the specified program only.

    Profile Name

    When you enter the name of the profile, the report displays the security events that are generated for the specified profile. You can use this to see what is being confined by a specific profile.

    PID Number

    Process ID number is a number that uniquely identifies one specific process or running program (this number is valid only during the lifetime of that process).

    Severity Level

    Select the lowest severity level for security events to include in the report. The selected severity level and above are included in the reports.

    Detail

    A source to which the profile has denied access. This includes capabilities and files. You can use this field to report the resources to which profiles prevent access.

    Access Type

    The access type describes what is actually happening with the security event. The options are PERMITTING, REJECTING, or AUDITING.

    Mode

    The mode is the permission that the profile grants to the program or process to which it is applied. The options are r (read), w (write), l (link), and x (execute).

    Export Type

    Enables you to export a CSV (comma separated values) or HTML file. The CSV file separates pieces of data in the log entries with commas using a standard data format for importing into table-oriented applications. You can enter a pathname for your exported report by typing in the full pathname in the field provided.

    Location to Store Log

    Enables you to change the location that the exported report is stored. The default location is /var/log/apparmor/reports-exported. When you change this location, select Accept. Select Browse to browse the file system.

  5. To see the report, filtered as desired, select Next. One of the three reports displays.

  6. Refer the following sections for detailed information about each type of report.

4.3.3. Adding New Reports

Adding new reports enables you to create a scheduled security incident report that displays Novell AppArmor security events according to your preset filters. When a report is set up in Schedule Reports, it periodically launches a report of Novell AppArmor security events that have occurred on the system.

You can configure a daily, weekly, monthly, or hourly report to run for a specified period. You can set the report to display rejections for certain severity levels or to filter by program name, profile name, severity level, or denied resources. This report can be exported to an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) or CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format.

[Note]Note

Return to the beginning of this section if you need help navigating to the main report screen (see Section 4.3, “Reports” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide)).

To add a new scheduled security incident report, proceed as follows:

  1. Click Add to create a new security incident report. The first page of Add Scheduled SIR opens.

    Add scheduled SIR
  2. Fill in the fields with the following filtering information, as necessary:

    Report Name

    Specify the name of the report. Use names that easily discern one report from the next.

    Day of Month

    Select any day of the month to activate monthly filtering in reports. If you select All, monthly filtering is not performed.

    Day of Week

    Select the day of the week on which to schedule weekly reports, if desired. If you select ALL, weekly filtering is not performed. If monthly reporting is selected, this field defaults to ALL.

    Hour and Minute

    Select the time. This specifies the hour and minute that you would like the reports to run. If you do not change the time, selected reports runs at midnight. If neither month nor day of week are selected, the report runs daily at the secified time.

    E-Mail Target

    You have the ability to send the scheduled security incident report via e-mail to up to three recipients. Just enter the e-mail addresses for those who require the security incident information.

    Export Type

    This option enables you to export a CSV (comma separated values) or HTML file. The CSV file separates pieces of data in the log entries with commas using a standard data format for importing into table-oriented applications. You can enter a pathname for your exported report by typing in the full pathname in the field provided.

    Location to Store Log

    Enables you to change the location that the exported report is stored. The default location is /var/log/apparmor/reports-exported. When you change this location, select Accept. Select Browse to browse the file system.

  3. Click Next to proceed to the second page of Add Scheduled SIR.

    Add scheduled SIR, page
	  2
  4. Fill in the fields with the following filtering information, as necessary:

    Program Name

    You can specify a program name or pattern that matches the name of the binary executable for the program of interest. The report displays security events that have occurred for the specified program only.

    Profile Name

    You can specify the name of the profile for which the report should display security events. You can use this to see what is being confined by a specific profile.

    PID Number

    Process ID number is a number that uniquely identifies one specific process or running program (this number is valid only during the lifetime of that process).

    Detail

    A source to which the profile has denied access. This includes capabilities and files. You can use this field to create a report of resources to which profiles prevent access.

    Severity

    Select the lowest severity level of security events to include in the report. The selected severity level and above are included in the reports.

    Access Type

    The access type describes what is actually happening with the security event. The options are PERMITTING, REJECTING, or AUDITING.

    Mode

    The mode is the permission that the profile grants to the program or process to which it is applied. The options are r (read), w (write), l (link), and x (execute).

  5. Click Save to save this report. Novell AppArmor returns to the Scheduled Reports main window where the newly scheduled report appears in the list of reports.

4.3.4. Editing Reports

From the AppArmor Reports screen, you can select and edit a report. The stock reports cannot be edited or deleted.

[Note]Note

Return to the beginning of this section if you need help navigating to the main report screen (see Section 4.3, “Reports” (↑Novell AppArmor 2.0 Administration Guide)).

Perform the following steps to run a report from the list of reports:

  1. From the list of reports in the Schedule Reports window, select the report to edit.

  2. Click Edit to edit the security incident report. The first page of the Edit Scheduled SIR displays.

    Edit scheduled SIR
  3. Enter the following filtering information, as necessary:

    Day of Month

    Select any day of the month to activate monthly filtering in reports. If you select All, monthly filtering is not performed.

    Day of Week

    Select the day of the week on which to schedule the weekly reports. If you select All, weekly filtering is not performed. If monthly reporting is selected, this defaults to All.

    Hour and Minute

    Select the time. This specifies the hour and minute that you would like the reports to run. If you do not change the time, selected report runs at midnight. If neither the day of the month nor day of the week is selected, the report runs daily at the specified time.

    E-Mail Target

    You have the ability to send the scheduled security incident report via e-mail to up to three recipients. Just enter the e-mail addresses for those who require the security incident information.

    Export Type

    This option enables you to export a CSV (comma separated values) or HTML file. The CSV file separates pieces of data in the log entries with commas using a standard data format for importing into table-oriented applications. You can enter a pathname for your exported report by typing the full pathname in the field provided.

    Location to Store Log

    Enables you to change the location where the exported report is stored. The default location is /var/log/apparmor/reports-exported. When you change this location, select Accept. Select Browse to browse the file system.

  4. Click Next to proceed to the next Edit Scheduled SIR page. The second page of Edit Scheduled Reports opens.

    Edit scheduled reports, page
	  two
  5. Fill in the fields with the following filtering information, as necessary:

    Program Name

    You can specify a program name or pattern that matches the name of the binary executable for the program of interest. The report displays security events that have occurred for the specified program only.

    Profile Name

    You can specify the name of the profile for which to display security events. You can use this to see what is being confined by a specific profile.

    PID Number

    Process ID number is a number that uniquely identifies one specific process or running program (this number is valid only during the lifetime of that process).

    Detail

    A source to which the profile has denied access. This includes capabilities and files. You can use this field to create a report of resources to which profiles prevent access.

    Severity

    Select the lowest severity level for security events to include in the report. The selected severity level and above are included in the reports.

    Access Type

    The access type describes what is actually happening with the security event. The options are PERMITTING, REJECTING, or AUDITING.

    Mode

    The mode is the permission that the profile grants to the program or process to which it is applied. The options are r (read), w (write), l (link), and x (execute).

  6. Select Save to save the changes to this report. Novell AppArmor returns to the Scheduled Reports main window where the scheduled report appears in the list of reports.

4.3.5. Deleting Reports

Delete a Report enables you to permanently remove a report from the list of Novell AppArmor scheduled reports. To delete a report, follow these instructions:

  1. To remove a report from the list of reports, highlight the report and click Delete.

  2. From the comfirmation pop-up, select Cancel if you do not want to delete the selected report. If you are sure you want to remove the report permanently from the list of reports, select Delete.